THE SECOND PUNIC WAR AT SEA.Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, Vol. [2] His works include a now-largely-lost manual on military tactics,[3] but he is now known for The Histories, written sometime after 146 BC. Second Punic War Battles List of Battles Battle of Ager Falernus. [2][11] The modern historian Andrew Curry sees Polybius as being "fairly reliable";[12] while Craige Champion describes him as "a remarkably well-informed, industrious, and insightful historian". Both Carthage and Rome were worn out with the fighting, and both longed for peace. Capua had defected to Hannibal after the Battle of Cannae in 216 BC. [38][39] When armies were campaigning, surprise attacks, ambushes and stratagems were common. was fought between the empire of Rome and Carthage led by Hannibal.The First Punic War ended in the Roman victory at the Battle of the Aegates Islands in the largest naval battle of the war in the year of 241 B.C. Fought across the entire Western … The heavily outnumbered Carthaginian infantry held out while this was happening until Hasdrubal charged into the legions from behind. [8][9][10], The accuracy of Polybius's account has been much debated over the past 150 years, but the modern consensus is to accept it largely at face value, and the details of the war in modern sources are largely based on interpretations of Polybius's account. The Romans established a lodgement in north-east Iberia and the Carthaginians repeatedly attempted and failed to reduce it. [83], When news of the defeat reached Rome it initially caused panic. The Roman general Publius Scipio won a decisive battle at Ilipa in 206 and forced the Carthaginians out of Spain. [109], The essence of Hannibal's campaign in Italy was to attempt to fight the Romans by using local resources; raising recruits from among the local population. Menu. [112] It was the only time during the war that Carthage reinforced Hannibal. [47] During this period of Roman expansion, Carthage, with its capital in what is now Tunisia, had come to dominate southern Spain, much of the coastal regions of North Africa, the Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, and the western half of Sicily. Hannibal route Second Punic War. 10,000 talents was approximately 269,000 kg (265 long tons) of silver. [29][30] Both Iberia and Gaul provided large numbers of experienced infantry – unarmoured troops who would charge ferociously, but had a reputation for breaking off if a combat was protracted[31][32] – and unarmoured close order cavalry[33] referred to by Livy as "steady", meaning that they were accustomed to sustained hand-to-hand combat rather than hit and run tactics. The Second Battle of Capua was fought in 211 BC, when the Romans besieged Capua. The Second Battle of Capua was fought in 211 BC, when the Romans besieged Capua. During the Second Punic War (218–201 bc) Capua sided with Carthage against Rome. [87], In early spring 217 BC, the Carthaginians crossed the Apennines unopposed, taking a difficult but unguarded route. Hannibal had made Capua his winter quarter in 215 BC and had conducted his campaigns against Nola and Casilinum from there. Hiero II. [100] In the spring of 216 BC Hannibal seized the large supply depot at Cannae on the Apulian plain. [163] Henceforth it was clear that Carthage was politically subordinate to Rome. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. It is described by Polybius at 9.4-7, and by Livy at 26.4-6. A Roman relief army broke through the siege, but was then ambushed and besieged itself. [20], Most male Roman citizens were eligible for military service and would serve as infantry, with a better-off minority providing a cavalry component. After the death or capture of more than 120,000 Roman troops in less than three years, many of Rome's Italian allies, notably Capua, defected to Carthage, giving Hannibal control over much of southern Italy. The approximate extent of territory controlled by Rome and Carthage immediately before the start of the First Punic War. Home; Second Punic War > Second Punic War Battles. The First Battle of Capua was fought in 212 BC between Hannibal and two Roman consular armies. [131][132] Despite these losses, the Romans besieged Capua, the Carthaginians' key ally in Italy. This could be increased to 5,000 in some circumstances. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. [143] In 206 BC the Carthaginians ended this drain on their resources by dividing several Numidian kingdoms with him. Scipio was in Massalia when he heard the news of Hannibal’s movement. The Romans' lodgement between the Ebro and Pyrenees was now secure and it blocked the route from Iberia to Italy, preventing the despatch of reinforcements from Iberia to Hannibal. [102], Within a few weeks of Cannae a Roman army of 25,000 was ambushed by Boii Gauls at the Battle of Silva Litana and annihilated. The Carthaginians accepted Scipio’s terms for peace: Carthage was forced to pay an indemnity and surrender its navy, and Spain and the Mediterranean islands were ceded to Rome. [82] As a result, most of the Gallic tribes declared for the Carthaginian cause, and Hannibal's army grew to more than 40,000 men. Traditionally, when at war the Romans would raise two legions, each of 4,200 infantry[note 3] and 300 cavalry. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. During the Second Punic War (218–201 bc) Capua sided with Carthage against Rome. Ultimately, Rome won the Second Punic War, but it was not a foregone conclusion. Hannibal (or Hannibal Barca) was the leader of the military forces of Carthage that fought against Rome in the Second Punic War. [30] On occasion some of the infantry would wear captured Roman armour, especially among Hannibal's troops. It soon received Gallic and Ligurian reinforcements. The Second Punic War brought about the downfall of the established balance of power of the ancient world and Rome rose to become the supreme power in the Mediterranean region for the coming 600 years. The cause of Second Punic War Bust of Hannibal discovered in Capua South of the river Ebro, Sagunto was only sea town (it was Hellenized Iberian city), which did not obeyed to Carthaginians, but it entered into an alliance with Rome. [78][142] In 217 BC 40 Carthaginian and Iberian warships were beaten by 55 Roman and Massalian vessels at the Battle of Ebro River, with 29 Carthaginian ships lost. The war was ignited by the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome. [155] Scipio gave battle to and destroyed two large Carthaginian armies. The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War, (by the Romans) The War Against Hannibal, or "The Carthaginian War", lasted from 218 to 201 BC [2] and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean.This was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic, with the crucial participation of Numidian-Berber armies and tribes on both sides. [143][78], The Carthaginians suffered a wave of defections of local Celtiberian tribes to Rome. It is described by Polybius at 9.4-7, and by Livy at 26.4-6. [159] The decisive Battle of Zama followed in October 202 BC. Updates? Carthaginians vs Romans Historical Background of The Battle: “Sending several couriers to penetrate into Capua (of whom one managed to do so) Hannibal gave his friends within the walls instructions to make a sortie at a given hour on the next day, while he would assault the lines from the outside at the same time. However, only part of the besieging force left for Rome and Capua fell soon afterwards. [94] The Carthaginians continued their march through Etruria, then Umbria, to the Adriatic coast, then marched south into Apulia,[95] in the hope of winning over some of the ethnic Greek and Italic city states of southern Italy. Mago's arrival in the north of the Italian peninsula was followed by Hannibal's inconclusive Battle of Crotona in 204 BC in the far south of the peninsula. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [160], The peace treaty the Romans subsequently imposed on the Carthaginians stripped them of all of their overseas territories, and some of their African ones. A brilliant defensive strategy conducted by Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator harried the Carthaginians without offering battle. (218–201 ),also called Second Carthaginian War, second in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) Empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. [55] Rome exploited Carthage's distraction during the Truceless War against rebellious mercenaries and Libyan subjects to break the peace treaty and annex Carthaginian Sardinia and Corsica in 238 BC. The foundations of this dominion were laid by Hamilcar Barca,…. [136], In 205 BC, Mago landed in Genua in north-west Italy with the remnants of his Spanish army (see § Iberia below). After a long siege, it was taken by the Romans in 211 BC and severely punished ( Second Battle of Capua ); its magistrates and communal organization were abolished, the inhabitants who weren't killed lost their civic rights, and its territory was declared ager publicus (Roman state domain). Second Punic War, also called Second Carthaginian War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. These included the large city of Capua and the major port city of Tarentum (modern Taranto). That year, Hannibal surprised the Romans by marching his army overland from Iberia, through Gaul and over the Alps to Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy). This Second Punic, or Hannibalic, War, 218–201 B.C., was one of the titanic struggles of history. The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War and (by the Romans) the War Against HannibalSecond Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War and (by the Romans) the War … They were divided into three ranks, of which the front rank also carried two javelins, while the second and third ranks had a thrusting spear instead. It was one of the deadliest human conflicts of ancient times. The campaign ended in disaster at the Battle of Oroscopa[167] and anti-Carthaginian factions in Rome used the illicit military action as a pretext to prepare a punitive expedition. The latter joined his army in large numbers, bringing it up to 60,000 men. The account of the Roman historian Livy, who relied heavily on Polybius, is much used by modern historians where Polybius's account is not extant. The Second Punic War was fought from 218 to 201 BC when the great Southern European powers of Rome and Carthage fought for control of the western Mediterranean; it was the second of the famed "Punic Wars". [143], In 210 BC Publius Cornelius Scipio,[note 6] arrived in Iberia with further Roman reinforcements. [49] Relationships were good, the two states had several times declared their mutual friendship and there were strong commercial links. S67, p. 49. Many were from North Africa which provided several types of fighter, including: close order infantry equipped with large shields, helmets, short swords and long thrusting spears; javelin-armed light infantry skirmishers; close-order shock cavalry[note 4] (also known as "heavy cavalry") carrying spears; and light cavalry skirmishers who threw javelins from a distance and avoided close combat. It was the long-standing Roman procedure to elect two men each year, known as consuls, as senior magistrates, who at time of war would each lead an army. [72] In Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy), the major Gallic tribes attacked the Roman colonies there, causing the Romans to flee to their previously-established colony of Mutina (modern Modena), where they were besieged. The peace treaty imposed on the Carthaginians stripped them of all of their overseas territories, and some of their African ones. [161] The Roman and allied Numidian cavalry drove the Carthaginian cavalry from the field. [26][27] When they did they fought as well-armoured heavy infantry armed with long thrusting spears, although they were notoriously ill-trained and ill-disciplined. [108] Such Italian forces as were raised resisted operating away from their home cities and performed badly when they did. Aided by internal upheaval in Syracuse, Carthage reestablished its presence on the island in 215 and maintained it until 210. An indemnity of 10,000 silver talents[note 7] was to be paid over 50 years. Start studying Second Punic War. Second Punic War: Second Period, From The Revolt Of Capua To The Battle Of The Metaurus - b.C. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. Henceforth it was clear that Carthage was politically subordinate to Rome. His subordinate Hanno was able to raise troops in Samnium in 214 BC, but the Romans intercepted these new levies in the Battle of Beneventum and eliminated them before they rendezvoused with Hannibal. However, the Romans broke through the thinned-out center of the Carthaginian line and then defeated each wing separately, inflicting severe losses, and taking heavy losses themselves. They carried several javelins, which would be thrown from a distance, a short sword, and a 90-centimetre (3 ft) shield. Posted in Second Punic War (218-202 BC) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Rating 0.00 (0 Votes) Victory Results: 0 %. [121], Sicily remained firmly in Roman hands, blocking the ready seaborne reinforcement and resupply of Hannibal from Carthage. [18] Modern historians usually take into account the writings of various Roman annalists, some contemporary; the Greek Diodorus Siculus; and the later Roman historians, Plutarch, Appian and Dio Cassius. In 205 BC this war ended with a negotiated peace. 41, Issue. The Second Punic War changed the world. As Syracuse and Macedonia joined the Carthaginian side after Cannae, the conflict spread. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. [33][35] The Carthaginians also employed war elephants; North Africa had indigenous African forest elephants at the time. The Second Punic War was fought from 218 to 201 BC when the great Southern European powers of Rome and Carthage fought for control of the western Mediterranean; it was the second of the famed "Punic Wars". [97] Toni Ñaco del Hoyo describes the Trebia, Lake Trasimene and Cannae as the three "great military calamities" suffered by the Romans in the first three years of the war. There were three main military theatres during the war: Italy, where the Carthaginian general Hannibal defeated the Roman legions repeatedly, with occasional subsidiary campaigns in Sicily, Sardinia and Greece; Iberia, where Hasdrubal, a younger brother of Hannibal, defended the Carthaginian colonial cities with mixed success until moving into Italy; and Africa, where the war was decided. The Romans beat off a Carthaginian attack[70][71] and captured the island of Malta. In 205 BC a last attempt was made by Mago to recapture New Carthage when the Roman occupiers were shaken by another mutiny and an Iberian uprising, but he was repulsed. The warrior is armed with a, 2nd century BC marble bust, identified as the younger Scipio, now in the. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. [111] When the port city of Locri defected to Carthage in the summer of 215 BC it was immediately used to reinforce the Carthaginian forces in Italy with soldiers, supplies and war elephants. Quintus Fabius Maximus was elected dictator by the Roman Assembly and adopted the "Fabian strategy" of avoiding pitched battles, relying instead on low-level harassment to wear the invader down, until Rome could rebuild its military strength. [13] Much of Polybius's account of the Second Punic War is missing, or only exists in fragmentary form. [78] A rushed Carthaginian attack in late 218 BC was beaten off at the Battle of Cissa. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. [128], Fabius was able to overrun the Carthaginian ally Arpi in 213 BC. When the Romans recaptured the city in 211 bc, they deprived its citizens of political rights and replaced their magistrates with Roman prefects. [76] A Roman fleet carrying the Iberian-bound army landed at Rome's ally Massalia (modern Marseille) at the mouth of the Rhone,[77] but Hannibal evaded the Romans and they continued to Iberia. The Second Punic War was fought between Carthage and Rome from 218 to 202 BC.It was the second of three major wars fought between the Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Roman Republic, then still confined to the Italian Peninsula.They were called "Punic" Wars because Rome's name for Carthaginians was Punici (older Poenici, due to their Phoenician ancestry). Scipio Africanus was the first Roman general to take a conquered land as his surname, and the first to lead the same soldiers year after year throughout a war. Scipio was awarded a triumph and received the agnomen "Africanus". [147] In a carefully planned assault in 209 BC, he captured the lightly-defended centre of Carthaginian power in Iberia, New Carthage,[147][148] seizing a vast booty of gold, silver and siege artillery. Sources other than Polybius are discussed by Bernard Mineo in "Principal Literary Sources for the Punic Wars (apart from Polybius)". Eventually, however, under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca, his son Hannibal, and his son-in-law Hasdrubal, Carthage acquired a new base in Spain, whence they could renew the war against Rome. By 214 BC the bulk of southern Italy had turned against Rome. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. Archimedes before being killed by the Roman soldier – copy of a Roman mosaic from the 2nd century, An Iberian warrior from bas-relief c. 200 BC. In 209 BC the new Roman commander Publius Scipio captured Carthago Nova, the main Carthaginian base in the peninsula. In the spring of 212 BC the Romans stormed Syracuse in a surprise night assault and captured several districts of the city. His surprise entry into the Italian peninsula led to the cancellation of Rome's planned campaign for the year: an invasion of Africa. In 211 BC, Rome contained the threat of Macedonia by allying with the Aetolian League, an anti-Macedonian coalition of Greek city states. [45], The Roman Republic had been aggressively expanding in the southern Italian mainland for a century[46] and had conquered peninsular Italy south of the Arno River by 272 BC, when the Greek cities of southern Italy (Magna Graecia) submitted after the conclusion of the Pyrrhic War. One of those disinherited was the Numidian prince Masinissa, who was thus driven into the arms of Rome. [101] The historian Richard Miles describes Cannae as "Rome's greatest military disaster". This chronology includes references to some of the other fronts on which Rome was fighting at the same time and the importation of the stone Great Mother from Asia Minor that Rome brought home to help her reverse the trend and win the war. [165], Rome's African ally, King Masinissa of Numidia, exploited the prohibition on Carthage waging war to repeatedly raid and seize Carthaginian territory with impunity. [99], The Roman populace derided Fabius as the Cunctator ("the Delayer"), and at the elections of 216 BC elected as consuls Gaius Terentius Varro who advocated pursuing a more aggressive war strategy and Lucius Aemilius Paullus, who advocated a strategy somewhere between Fabius's and that suggested by Varro. In 219 BC Hannibal besieged, captured and sacked the pro-Roman city of Saguntum, prompting a Roman declaration of war on Carthage in spring 218 BC. [note 5][32][37], Garrison duty and land blockades were the most common operations. Hasdrubal demurred, arguing that Carthaginian authority over the Iberian tribes was too fragile and the Roman forces in the area too strong for him to execute the planned movement. They decided to embark one army for Spain and another for Sicily and Africa. [156], Rome and Carthage entered into peace negotiations, and Carthage recalled Hannibal from Italy. [64] At some time during the next six years Rome made a separate agreement with the city of Saguntum, which was situated well south of the Ebro. [101] As a result, the Roman infantry was surrounded with no means of escape. In 217 Hannibal, reinforced by Gallic tribesmen, marched south. In response, Roman advisers were sent to train his soldiers and he waged war against the Carthaginian ally Gala. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. An anti-Macedonian coalition of Greek city states skirmishers to their coastal stronghold north of the Iberian peninsula,. His campaigns against Nola and Casilinum from there Rome went to War, the armies surrounding Capua go Rome. 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